Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Cissus quadrangularis, हड़जोड़, হাড়জোড়া, ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ, ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട, నల్లేరు, பிரண்டை, เพชรสังฆาต, Devil's Backbone


Cissus quadrangularis L.
Family: Vitaceae

Synonyms: Cissus bifida Schumach. & Thonn., Cissus edulis Dalzell, Cissus quadrangula L., Cissus quadrangula Salisb., Cissus succulenta (Galpin) Burtt-Davy, Cissus tetragona Harv., Cissus tetraptera Hook.f., Cissus triandra Schumach. & Thonn., Saelanthus quadragonus (L.) Forssk., Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight, Vitis succulenta Galpin

Vernacular names:
  • English: Devil's Backbone
  • Bangla: হাড়জোড়া
  • Hindi: हड़जोड़ hadjod
  • Kannada: ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ mangaravalli
  • Kinyarwanda: Umubogora
  • Malayalam: ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട
  • Odia: ହାଡ଼ଭଙ୍ଗା 
  • Sinhala: Hiressa
  • Sanskrit: Amara, Asthisamhara
  • Tamil: பிரண்டை pirandai
  • Telugu: నల్లేరు nalleru
  • Thai: เพชรสังฆาต
  • Vietnamese: Hồ đằng bốn cạnh
Description: Vine, rambling shrub, herbaceous, climbing, scandent, sprawling, jointed stems, quadrangular and four-winged succulent stems rooting at the nodes, young branches winged bearing long slender tendrils, simple leaves broadly ovate, flowers in clusters at nodes, perianth green with red lobes, apiculate berries, tender leaves as vegetable.

Aphrodisiac, carminative [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. University]

Used in Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. Presence of calcium oxalate crystals, irritating action of the fresh stem on the skin. Powdered root and stem specifically used in bone fracture. Root decoction antioxidant, widely used as remedy for hemorrhoids, in the treatment of gastric ulcers, peptic ulcer disease, dysentery; crushed stem and roots used as a plaster for bone fractures, analgesic, haemostatic. Whole plant infusion purgative. Succulent stem crushed with onion given orally for asthma; stem juice applied on swellings, body pains and bone fracture; stem juice for irregular menstruation and scurvy, dropped into ear for earache and into nose for epistaxis; stem paste for fertility, applied on rheumatic disorders; stem decoction in lime water taken as stomachic and alterative; paste of shoot for burns and wounds. Ash of leaves and shoots in bowel complaints and digestive troubles. Veterinary medicine, leaves infusion for diarrhea of calves; leaf paste applied on bone fracture; leaves ground with those of Pedalium murex and the decoction given in fevers; leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa along with those of Cissus quadrangularis pounded and given for ephemeral fever; stem fed in the bone fracture of cattle; stem juice with salt given to cure anorexia; roots of Indigofera trita along with stem bark of Balanites aegyptiacus, stem of Cissus quadrangularis and Tinospora cordifolia pounded and the extract given in impaction; stem and the leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum pounded and the extract applied over the fractured area and bandaged; stem extract given in dysentery; stem paste applied on sprains and swellings; warm crushed plant applied locally on wounds of oxen. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Phytoconstituents: Quadrangularins A-C, 5-amyrin, 5-amyrone, resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol,parthenocissine A and others.  Whole plant is used for urinary schistosomiasis in Mali.[A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach]

A  mixture  of stem  powder  and wheat flour  in  1:1  ratio  is  fed  to animals  to  cure  fractures  and  dislocations  of  bones. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

The leaves and young shoots are powerful alteratives.  The juice of the stem is a reputed  cure  for  scurvy  and irregular  menstruation.  The juice is dropped into  the  ear for otorrhoea and into the nose for epistaxis.  The root is used as a specific for fractures of bones. In Tanganyika, the leaf is used for treating ulcers and wounds, the root for  myalgia and  the juice of the stem for earache. In central Africa, a decoction of the stem is given for Menorrhagia, palpitation  of the heart and as an anthelmintic.  Externally, a poultice of the plant is applied for  muscular pains.  This plant  is also used  as a fish poison. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon]

The fresh leaves and pounded stems are applied to burns, wounds and also to saddle sores of horses, camels, etc. The stem is also used for gastrointestinal complaints or as a stomachic sometimes taken in the form of the succulent stem boiled and sugared. In Guinea the stems and leaves are given to cattle to induce milk and in Senegal a decoction of the stems and leaves is used as a friction and wash in pains with fever and in malaria. [Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa]

270 Published articles of  Cissus quadrangularis

1.    Tasadduq, R., et al., Ethanol Extract of Cissus quadrangularis Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Mineralization of Murine Pre-Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2017. 232(3): p. 540-547.
2.    Sawangjit, R., et al., Efficacy and Safety of Cissus quadrangularis L. in Clinical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Phytotherapy Research, 2017. 31(4): p. 555-567.
3.    Sakthivel, M., et al., Antibacterial cysteine protease from Cissus quadrangularis L. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017. 103: p. 878-888.
4.    Raazia, T., et al., Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhances osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2017. 232(3): p. 540-547.
5.    Jyotsna, J.K., et al., Role of Cissus quadrangularis on Homeostasis of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Diabetic Condition. Advanced Science Letters, 2017. 23(3): p. 1925-1929.
6.    Devipriya, D. and S.M. Roopan, Cissus quadrangularis mediated ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles and its antifungal studies against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus. Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications, 2017. 80: p. 38-44.
7.    University, S.R.M., De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis in Cissus quadrangularis L. using next generation sequencing. European Nucleotide Archive, 2016.
8.    Sudmoon, R., A. Chaveerach, and T. Tanee, Analysis of genetics and chemical contents relation compared to commonly used Cissus quadrangularis L. and barcode markers of some Thailand Cissus species. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016. 29(1): p. 65-75.
9.    Selvamaleeswaran, P., E. Manimaran, and M. Sureshkumar, Antimicrobial activity of medicinally important plant - Cissus quadrangularis Linn against some pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2016. 8(11): p. 92-96.
10.    Sathappan, S. and V. Baskaralingam, Acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Cissus quadrangularis in Poecilia reticulata larvae and its antibiofilm activity against gram positive & gram negative bacteria. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 2016. 53: p. 99-99.
11.    Sarkar, B.K., et al., Formulation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory herbal topical formulation of Cissus quadrangularis L. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2016. 5(3): p. 681-689.
12.    Pirshahid, P.A., et al., Anti-hemorrhoid activities from Cissus quadrangularis L, in Xxix International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture:Sustaining Lives,Livelihoods and Landscapes:V World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and International Symposium on Plants as Factories of Natural Substances,Edible and Essential Oils, B. Patil, et al., Editors. 2016. p. 161-172.
13.    Pathomwichaiwat, T., et al., Antiosteoporotic-based standardization of Cissus quadrangularis hexane extract using similarity analysis. Planta medica, 2016. 81(S 01): p. S1-S381.
14.    Ncbi, Cissus quadrangularis overview. European Nucleotide Archive, 2016.
15.    Muthusami, S., et al., Cissus quadrangularis prevented the ovariectomy induced oxidative stress in the femur of adult albino rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2016. 81: p. 416-423.
16.    Marquis, G., et al., Evaluation of antibacterial activity of plant mediated CaO nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis extract. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B-Biology, 2016. 155: p. 28-33.
17.    Lee, H.J., et al., Cissus quadrangularis Extracts Decreases Body Fat Through Regulation of Fatty acid Synthesis in High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 2016. 59(1): p. 49-56.
18.    Jayaveeran, A. and M. Pugazhvadivu, Characterization of hydrocarbonaceous liquid and solid products derived from thermal defragmentation of Cissus quadrangularis Linn in a fixed bed pyrolysis. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects, 2016. 38(15): p. 2299-2305.
19.    Jain, V., V. Kinjawadekar, and K. Laddha, A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography method for quantification of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from Cissus quadrangularis. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 2016. 4(4): p. 159-164.
20.    Jadhav, A.N., et al., Ketosteroid Standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. Extract and its Anabolic Activity: Time to Look Beyond Ketosteroid? Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2016. 12(46): p. S213-S217.
21.    Jadhav, A.N., et al., Ketosteroid standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. extract and its anabolic activity: time to look beyond ketosteroid? Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2016. 12(46 (Suppl.)): p. 213-217.
22.    Indran, S., et al., Cellulose powder treatment on Cissus quadrangularis stem fiber-reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix composites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 2016. 35(3): p. 212-227.
23.    Henry, J., K. Mohanraj, and G. Sivakumar, Influence of Cissus quadrangularis Stabilized AgNPs and Its Structural, Optical, Antibacterial Analysis: A Comparative Study. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 2016. 26(2): p. 312-319.
24.    Ashrethalatha, A., et al., Identification and molecular characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) species from the medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis (Pirandai). International Food Research Journal, 2016. 23(6): p. 2695-2701.
25.    Arshad, M., S. Siddiqui, and D. Ali, In vitro anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of ethanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis. Caryologia, 2016. 69(2): p. 128-132.
26.    Varsha, N.N. and M.Y. Ghulam, Investigation on secondary metabolites in Cissus quadrangularis Linn. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2015. 6(2): p. P-349-P-353.
27.    Suhashini, R. and J.H. Chandra, Study of antibacterial potential and phytochemical constituents of three sided Cissus quadrangularis. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015. 7(4): p. 1466-1469.
28.    Siddiqui, S., et al., Cissus quadrangularis Linn exerts dose-dependent biphasic effects: osteogenic and anti-proliferative, through modulating ROS, cell cycle and Runx2 gene expression in primary rat osteoblasts. Cell Proliferation, 2015. 48(4): p. 443-454.
29.    Sheikh, S., et al., Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Stem Ethanolic Extract Liberates Reactive Oxygen Species and Induces Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in KB Cells. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2015. 11(44): p. S365-S374.
30.    Shamina, S. and R. Kokilavani, Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on haematological parameters of control and arthritis induced rats. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015. 4(4): p. 1317-1325.
31.    Santos, I.F.C.d., et al., Cissus quadrangularis (Linn) (uva velve) and Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir (Linn) (pancolin) in wound healing. Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, 2015. 20(3): p. 348-357.
32.    Renugadevi, K., A. Nagarajan, and C.V. Nachiyar, Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Cissus quadrangularis extracts against human pathogens. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2015. 7(8): p. 80-84.
33.    Ramar, K. and V. Ayyadurai, Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants and phytochemical analysis of Cissus quadrangularis L. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015. 4(5): p. 2484-2494.
34.    Radhakrishnan, S., et al., Effects of native medicinal herbs (Alternanthera sessilis, Eclipta alba and Cissus quadrangularis) on growth performance, digestive enzymes and biochemical constituents of the monsoon river prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. Aquaculture Nutrition, 2015. 21(4): p. 496-506.
35.    Prabhavathi, M. Jayaramu, and M.P. Prasad, Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Cissus quadrangularis against nasocomial infectants. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015. 4(2): p. 1207-1214.
36.    Pathomwichaiwat, T., et al., Alkaline phosphatase activity-guided isolation of active compounds and new dammarane-type triterpenes from Cissus quadrangularis hexane extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2015. 160: p. 52-60.
37.    Nzengue, E., et al., Integrated pest control trial against the proliferation of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) in the National Park des Iles de la Madeleine (Senegal). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 2015. 91: p. 8529-8538.
38.    Nie, T.W., et al., Involvement of opioidergic and serotonergic systems in the analgesic activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. stem extract in mice. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 2015. 26(1): p. 35-41.
39.    National Centre for Biological, S., Draft genome of Pirandai/Veldt Grape (Cissus quadrangularis). European Nucleotide Archive, 2015.
40.    Mayandi, K., et al., A comparative study on characterisations of Cissus quadrangularis and Phoenix reclinata natural fibres. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 2015. 34(4): p. 269-280.
41.    Mayandi, K., et al., Mechanical performance of Cissus quadrangularis/polyester composite. Materials Today Communications, 2015. 4: p. 222-232.
42.    Mayandi, K., et al., Effect of Alkali Treatment on Tensile and Physicochemical Characterization of Cissus quadrangularis Fiber. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2015. 813-814: p. 172-8.
43.    Lekshnni, R.K., M.S. Sreekutty, and S. Mini, The regulatory effects of Cissus quadrangularis on some enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 2015. 53(8): p. 1194-1200.
44.    Lekshmi, R.K., R. Rajesh, and S. Mini, Ethyl acetate fraction of Cissus quadrangularis stem ameliorates hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and suppresses inflammatory response in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytomedicine, 2015. 22(10): p. 952-960.
45.    Kumar, R., et al., Cissus quadrangularis attenuates the adjuvant induced arthritis by down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and inhibiting angiogenesis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2015. 175: p. 346-355.
46.    Kuate, D., et al., The Use of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) in the Management of Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Participants. Natural Product Communications, 2015. 10(7): p. 1281-1286.
47.    Kirti, J., et al., Molecular characterization of Cissus quadrangularis by RAPD technique. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015. 7(3): p. 152-157.
48.    Kanwar, J.R., et al., Cissus quadrangularis inhibits IL-1 beta induced inflammatory responses on chondrocytes and alleviates bone deterioration in osteotomized rats via p38 MAPK signaling. Drug Design Development and Therapy, 2015. 9: p. 2927-2940.
49.    Indran, S. and R.E. Raj, Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2015. 117: p. 392-399.
50.    Gopinathan, N., et al., In vitro anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, 2015. 3(1): p. 24-27.
51.    Charas Dos Santos, I.F., et al., Cissus quadrangularis (Linn) (Uva Velve) y Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir (Linn) (Pancolin) en la cicatrización de heridas. Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, 2015. 20(3).
52.    Chandra, J.H. and R. Suhashini, In vitro screening of antibacterial and antioxidant activity and in silico analysis of three sided Cissus quadrangularis. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2015. 6(2): p. P-657-P-665.
53.    Brahmkshatriya, H.R., et al., Clinical evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis as osteogenic agent in maxillofacial fracture: A pilot study. Ayu, 2015. 36(2): p. 169-73.
54.    Arti, B., T. Suhas, and M.B. Patil, In vivo studies on antiarthritic activity of Cissus quadrangularis against adjuvant induced arthritis. Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology, 2015. 6(3): p. 327-327.
55.    Al-Sadi, A.M., Z.A. Al-Alawi, and A. Patzelt, Association of Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium cladosporioides with leaf spot in Cissus quadrangularis and Ficus sycomorus. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad), 2015. 14(1): p. 44-47.
56.    Subhashri, S., B.N.V. Hari, and D.R. Devi, Entrapment of Stem Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis into Biodegradable Nanoparticles and its Effectiveness for Diverse Therapeutic Activities. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2014. 26(12): p. 3710-3714.
57.    Sirasanagandla, S.R., et al., Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on diabetes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 2014. 5(1): p. 25-32.
58.    Ritesh, K. and C.P. Malik, Assessing morphological, anatomical, physiological, micropropagation, phytochemistry and genetic diversity in Cissus quadrangularis L. Journal of Plant Science Research, 2014. 30(1): p. 1-12.
59.    Ritesh, K. and C.P. Malik, Chemical fingerprinting in three morphotypes of Cissus quadrangularis L. Journal of Plant Science Research, 2014. 30(2): p. 189-196.
60.    Ritesh, K. and C.P. Malik, Assessment of intraspecific genetic variation between three morphotypes of Cissus quadrangularis using CCMP markers. Journal of Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology (PTC&B), 2014. 24(2): p. 205-212.
61.    Rayappan, S., B. Jeyaprabha, and P. Prakash, Defluoridization using a natural adsorbent, Cissus quadrangularis. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS), 2014. 3(6): p. 1899-1915.
62.    Rao Sirasanagandla, S., et al., Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats. Advances in pharmacological sciences, 2014. 2014: p. 483051-483051.
63.    Radhakrishnan, S., et al., Influence of medicinal herbs (Alteranthera sessilis, Eclipta alba and Cissus quadrangularis) on growth and biochemical parameters of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture International, 2014. 22(2): p. 551-572.
64.    Pathomwichaiwat, T., et al., New dammarane-type triterpenes from antiosteoporotic hexanes extract of Cissus quadrangularis L. Planta Medica, 2014. 80(10): p. 808-808.
65.    Parthipan, M. and A. Rajendran, Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae): epiphytic habitat? Indian Forester, 2014. 140(11): p. 1148-1150.
66.    Matadeen, B., B. Kamlesh, and S. Amrita, Evaluation of wound healing activity of Cissus quadrangularis. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS), 2014. 3(6): p. 822-834.
67.    Lingram, R.P., et al., Biochemical and hormonal evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis in accelerating healing process of bone fracture: a clinical study. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy (IJRAP), 2014. 5(4): p. 461-469.
68.    Lekshmi, R.K., B.T. Divya, and S. Mini, Cissus quadrangularis extract attenuates hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox Report, 2014. 19(5): p. 214-220.
69.    Kokilavani, P., et al., Antioxidant mediated ameliorative steroidogenesis by Commelina benghalensis L. and Cissus quadrangularis L. against quinalphos induced male reproductive toxicity. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 2014. 109: p. 18-33.
70.    Kaur, R. and C.P. Malik, Assessment of Intraspecific Genetic Variation Between Three Morphotypes of Cissus quadrangularis using CCMP Markers. Plant Tissue Culture & Biotechnology, 2014. 24(2): p. 205-212.
71.    Karadbhajne, S.V., V. Kumbhare, and M.A. Bombaywala, Application of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Hadjor) in nutraceutical food (bakery) products. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 2014. 6(4): p. 2263-2270.
72.    Indran, S., R.E. Raj, and V.S. Sreenivasan, Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2014. 110: p. 423-429.
73.    Gupta, Y. and S. Singh, EVALUATION OF THE ANTIARTHRITIC AND ANTI GRANULOMA ACTIVITY OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 2014. 115: p. 291-292.
74.    Chandel, A.K.S., et al., Biochemical estimation of radical scavenging and cellular DNA damage protecting activity in methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS), 2014. 3(4): p. 1439-1454.
75.    Batool, T. and A.R. Shakoori, EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS ON THE GROWTH OF MDBK CELLS. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 2014. 34: p. 73-74.
76.    Vijayalakshmi, A., et al., In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of flavonoid fraction from the aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. against human breast carcinoma cell lines. Journal of Chemistry, 2013. 2013: p. 150675-Article ID 150675.
77.    Suzu, I., et al., Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activity of Cissus quadrangularis Extract. Natural Product Communications, 2013. 8(5): p. 629-630.
78.    Stohs, S.J. and S.D. Ray, A Review and Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Cissus quadrangularis Extracts. Phytotherapy Research, 2013. 27(8): p. 1107-1114.
79.    Ritesh, K. and C.P. Malik, Genetic variability in Cissus quadrangularis Linn morphovariants I, II and III assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Phytomorphology, 2013. 63(3/4): p. 113-118.
80.    Rao, A.S. and R. Merugu, Crystal structure of isoengelitin isolated from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 2013. 5(4): p. 1939-1941.
81.    Rao, A.S., et al., Structure elucidation and absolute configuration of megastigmane derivatives from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research (IJPBR), 2013. 4(3): p. 52-58.
82.    Patil, S.D. and N.K. Kumavat, Pharmacological evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis fractionated extracts for bronchodilatory activity using Guinea pigs. Faseb Journal, 2013. 27.
83.    Pathomwichaiwat, T., et al., Isolation of Major Compounds from Pharmacologically Active Hexane Extract of Cissus quadrangularis L. Planta Medica, 2013. 79(10): p. 871-871.
84.    Ogugua, V.N., et al., Does Cissus quadrangularis Linn. contain nutritive and medicinal constituents? World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS), 2013. 2(6): p. 4404-4414.
85.    Lekshmi, R.K. and S. Mini, Evaluation of antioxidant and antiglycation activities of various solvent fractions of Cissus quadrangularis stem. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2013. 4(4): p. B-1259-B-1268.
86.    Joseph, B., J. George, and M. Jeevitha, Cissus quadrangularis in the treatment of osteoporosis. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013. 2(3): p. 596-605.
87.    Gopinath, V., et al., Biogenic synthesis of antibacterial silver chloride nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Materials Letters, 2013. 91: p. 224-227.
88.    Enechi, O.C., C.N. Igbonekwu, and O.P.C. Ugwu, Effects of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis on induced gastric ulcer in rats. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2013. 12(43): p. 6197-6202.
89.    Chaudhari, R.L., et al., Antihyperglycaemic activity of ethanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis (L.) leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2013. 3(1): p. 73-77.
90.    Bloomer, R.J., et al., Cissus Quadrangularis Reduces Joint Pain in Exercise-Trained Men: A Pilot Study. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 2013. 41(3): p. 29-35.
91.    Bhuvanasree, S.R., et al., Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Cissus quadrangularis extract using microwave irradiation. Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2013. 106: p. 190-196.
92.    Bhujade, A., et al., Induction of apoptosis in A431 skin cancer cells by Cissus quadrangularis Linn stem extract by altering Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and PARP cleavage. Food & Function, 2013. 4(2): p. 338-346.
93.    Yadav, P., A. Ganeshpurkar, and G. Rai, In vitro H(+) -K(+) ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Pharmacognosy research, 2012. 4(2): p. 123-6.
94.    Vijayakumari, P., et al., Studies on the physico-phytochemical and anti-diabetic properties of Cissus quadrangularis L. and Solanum torvum Swartz. International Journal of Drug Discovery and Herbal Research (IJDDHR), 2012(Jan/March): p. 323-328.
95.    Valli, J.S. and B. Vaseeharan, Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Cissus quadrangularis extracts. Materials Letters, 2012. 82: p. 171-173.
96.    Swamy, A.H.M.V., et al., Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012. 74(2): p. 183-187.
97.    Swamy, A.H.M.V., et al., Possible mode of action of Cissus quadrangularis in experimental induced nociception in mice. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2012. 6(14): p. 1088-1091.
98.    Soumya, S., et al., Development of a phytochemical scaffold for bone tissue engineering using Cissus quadrangularis extract. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2012. 87(2): p. 1787-1795.
99.    Shamina, S. and Gokilavani, Effect of serum biochemical markers and haematological values in sub-acute toxicity study of Cissus quadrangularis (stem). World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS), 2012. 1(2): p. 755-761.
100.    Sen, M.K. and B.K. Dash, A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cissus quadrangularis L. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2012. 6(3): p. 169-173.
101.    Sekhar, K.P.C., et al., Removal of chromium (VI) from waste waters using leaves powders of Justicia adhatoda, Cissus quadrangularis, Soapnut Acacia. Der Pharma Chemica, 2012. 4(2): p. 664-673.
102.    Sapsrithong, T., et al., Cissus quadrangularis ethanol extract upregulates superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in hydrogen peroxide-injured human ECV304 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012. 143(2): p. 664-672.
103.    Santhoshkumar, T., et al., Evaluation of stem aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis against Hippobosca maculata and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Experimental Parasitology, 2012. 132(2): p. 156-165.
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228.    Virzo De Santo, A., et al., EFFECTS OF AVAILABILITY OF WATER ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND CRASSULACEAN ACID METABOLISM ACTIVITY OF THE CHLORENCHYMA OF CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS IN RELATION TO CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Giornale Botanico Italiano, 1982. 116(SUPPL. 1): p. 29-30.
229.    Janardhanan, K., V. Gopal, and K.K. Lakshmanan, LITTLE KNOWN FEATURES IN THE EPIDERMOLOGY OF CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS L. Current Science, 1981. 50(17): p. 774-775.
230.    Desanto, A.V., et al., ENVIRONMENTAL-INFLUENCES ON CAM ACTIVITY OF CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS. Journal of Experimental Botany, 1980. 31(120): p. 75-82.
231.    De Santo, A.V., et al., ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON CRASSULACEAN ACID METABOLISM ACTIVITY OF CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS. Journal of Experimental Botany, 1980. 31(120): p. 75-82.
232.    Shah, J.J., et al., EFFECT OF MORPHACTIN ON ARIAL ROOT-TIPS OF CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS L. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1977. 15(4): p. 328-331.
233.    Ormrod, L.S. and L.I. Miller, CORKY EXCRESCENS OF THE STEMS OF CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS INFECTED WITH A ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE-SP. Virginia Journal of Science, 1977. 28(2): p. 54-54.
234.    Chopra, S.S., M.R. Patel, and R.P. Awadhiya, STUDIES ON CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN EXPERIMENTAL FRACTURE REPAIR - HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1976. 64(9): p. 1365-&.
235.    Chopra, S.S., et al., STUDIES ON CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN EXPERIMENTAL FRACTURE REPAIR - EFFECT ON CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN BLOOD. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1975. 63(6): p. 824-828.
236.    Prasad, G.C., S. Chatterjee, and K.N. Udupa, THE EFFECT OF PHYTOGENIC STEROID OF CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS-D ON ENDOCRINE GLANDS AFTER FRACTURE. Journal of Research in Indian Medicine, 1970. 4(2): p. 132-142.
237.    Chatterjee, S.N. and R.D. Ram, OCCURRENCE OF THE GRAPEVINE SPHINX HIPPOTION-CELERIO LEPIDOPTERA SPHINGIDAE ON CISSUS-QUADRANGULARIS-D FAMILY VITACEAE-D IN POONA INDIA. Indian Journal of Entomology, 1970. 32(4): p. 392-393.
238.    Sen, S.P., STUDIES ON ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS .2. Current Science, 1966. 35(12): p. 317-&.
239.    Udupa, K.N. and G.C. Prasad, FURTHER STUDIES ON EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN ACCELERATING FRACTURE HEALING. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1964. 52(1): p. 26-&.
240.    Udupa, K.N. and G. Prasad, BIOMECHANICAL + CALCIUM45 STUDIES ON EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN FRACTURE REPAIR. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1964. 52(5): p. 480-&.
241.    Das, P.K. and A.K. Sanyal, STUDIES ON CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS LINN .I. ACETYLCHOLINE LIKE ACTION OF TOTAL EXTRACT. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1964. 52(1): p. 63-&.
242.    Prasad, G.C. and K.N. Udupa, EFFECT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS ON HEALING OF CORTISONE TREATED FRACTURES. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1963. 51(4): p. 667-&.
243.    Udupa, K.N. and G.C. Prasad, Cissus quadrangularis in healing of fractures. A clinical study. Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 1962. 38: p. 590-3.
244.    Singh, L.M. and K.N. Udupa, Studies on "Cissus Quadrangularis" in fracture by using phosphorus 32. III. Indian journal of medical sciences, 1962. 16: p. 926-31.
245.    Udupa, K.N., H.J. Arnikar, and M.L. Singh, Experimental studies of the use of "Cissus Quadrangularis" in healing of fractures. II. Indian Jour Med Sci, 1961. 15((7)): p. 551-557.
246.    Madan, C.L. and S.L. Nayar, A pharmacognostical study of the stem of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1959. 18C: p. 253-5.
247.    Zhong, L., Cissus quadrangularis composition for use in e.g. controlling food, energy or calorie intake in individual, comprises mulberry leaf extract, and Cissus quadrangularis extract or Cissus quadrangularis plant powder. Naturegen Inc; Zhong L.
248.    Weber, T.L. and J.S. Dunfield, Oil extract of Crassulaceae Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants, e.g. Cissus quadrangularis, Kalanchoe pinnata and Aloe vera, useful in human, veterinary and agricultural applications. Hewlett-Packard Co.
249.    Wankhedkar, M.K., Herbal composition used to treat e.g. inflammatory and fungal diseases, comprises oil, turpentine, camphor and plant material from plants e.g. Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica and Cissus quadrangularis. Wankhedkar M K.
250.    Srivastava, R., et al., Formulation useful for healing bone fractures, and treating nonunion or delayed union of bone fractures, comprises medicinal extract of Cissus quadrangularis in thermoresponsive hydrogel matrix. Indian Inst Technology Bombay.
251.    Sen, S.P., Studies on the active constituents of Cissus quadrangularis steroidal principles : II. Curr Sci. 35((12)): p. 317-317.
252.    Raja, A.K., Synergistic poly-herbal composition used to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells, comprises extract of Trichopus zeylanicus, Cissus quadrangularis and Andrographis paniculata, and quality controlled food grade liquid solution. Lanson Biotech Private Ltd.
253.    Patell, V.M. and P.V. Morawala, Formulation useful for treating osteoporosis and related disorders e.g. bone loss, bone fracture, glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, Pagets disease, osteoarthritis, cartilage degeneration comprises extract from Cissus quadrangularis plant. Avestha Gengraine Technologies Pvt Ltd; Patell V M.
254.    Liu, Y., et al., Traditional Chinese medicinal pill used for treating polymyalgia rheumatic, is prepared by utilizing Codonopsis pilosula, couch grass root, rhizoma polygonati, keel, Chinese date, bamboo leaf, Chinese yam and Cissus quadrangularis. Wang X.
255.    Kothari, S.C., Composition useful for improving cardiovascular risk factors e.g. obesity comprises extracts from Cissus quadrangularis plant. Kothari S C.
256.    Kothari, S.C., Composition, useful e.g. for improving cardiovascular or metabolic risk factors e.g. decreasing body mass index and total cholesterol level, comprises a composition containing extracts from Cissus quadrangularis plants and soy albumin. Kothari S C; Gateway Health Alliances Inc; Soy Labs Llc.
257.    Kothari, S.C., Improving or eliminating metabolic risk factors that cause syndrome X, and to reduce e.g. weight and blood pressure in mammal, comprises providing a composition containing extracts of Cissus quadrangularis plants. Gateway Health Alliances Inc.
258.    Kothari, S.C., Inhibiting lipase, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and trypsin in mammal useful for treating e.g. cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and Syndrome X involves providing composition containing extract of Cissus quadrangularis plant. Gateway Health Alliances Inc.
259.    Kothari, S.C., Improving or eliminating cardiovascular risk factors comprises providing a composition containing an extracts from Cissus quadrangularis plants to a mammal. Gateway Health Alliances Inc.
260.    Kothari, S.C., Reducing weight and improving or eliminating cardiovascular or metabolic risk factor in mammal, comprises providing composition comprising Cissus quadrangularis plant extract, and soy albumin. Kothari S C.
261.    Kane, S.G., Oil extract of Crassulaceae Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants, e.g. Cissus quadrangularis, Kalanchoe pinnata and Aloe vera, useful in human, veterinary and agricultural applications. Kane S G.
262.    Huang, C., et al., Traditional Chinese medicine used for treating post-stroke physical dysfunction comprises Cissus quadrangularis, Millettia, Bauhinia championii, safflower, hematoxylin, centipede, rhizoma ligustici wallichii, Angelica, earthworm and Luffa. Liuzhou City Chinese Medical Hospital.
263.    Heuer, M., et al., Dietary supplement useful in weight reduction in mammal comprises Cissus quadrangularis extract and gamma-butyrobetaine of at a specified range of weight. Heuer M; Clement K; Chaudhuri S; Molino M; Apong P; Multi Formulations Ltd.
264.    Heuer, M., et al., Diet supplement useful for causing weight loss, for promoting weight loss of a mammal e.g. human comprises at least extract of Cissus Quadrangularis stem and leaf, extract of green tea leaf and caffeine anhydrous. Multi Formulations Ltd; Northern Innovations & Formulations Corp.
265.    He, Y., Medicine useful for e.g. treating arthritis and rheumatism, contains Scleria terrestris, Cissus quadrangularis, Impatiens balsamina, Corallodiscus flabellatus, Schisandra propinqua, purslane, artificial bezoar, menthol and Periploca. He Y.
266.    Fan, M., Medicinal composition useful for livestock and poultry, comprises amoxicillin, liquorice and Cissus quadrangularis. Fan M.
267.    Chen, J., Y. Zhang, and H. Zhang, Natural Uncaria cigarette additive, is prepared by refluxing and extracting Uncaria rhynchophylla, Cissus quadrangularis and Elaeagnus pungens individually by utilizing alcohol solvent, collecting extracting liquid and adding ethanol. China Tobacco Hubei Ind Corp; Wuhan Yellow Crane Tower Sci & Technolog.
268.    Chaudhuri, S., et al., Effervescent dietary composition for enhancing delivery of dietary ingredient, contains Cissus quadrangularis extract, caffeine, green tea extract and ingredients to produce effervescence upon introduction to aqueous solution. Multi Formulations Ltd.
269.    Chaudhuri, S., et al., Effervescent dietary composition, useful for enhancing delivery of dietary ingredient to human, comprises extract of Cissus quadrangularis, caffeine, extract of green tea and two ingredients capable of reacting to produce effervescence. Multi Formulations Ltd.
270.    Bashir, R., K. Clement, and M. Thomas, Maintaining or reducing body fat, comprises providing composition comprising Cucurbita moschata and e.g. Cissus quadrangularis, Nelumbo nucifera, Ilex paraguariensis, astaxanthin, Salvia officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis to a subject. Northern Innovations & Formulations Corp; Northern Innovations&Formulations Corp.


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